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HDI ranking: 182/187
HDI score: 0.344
Mali has a long history of decentralization; however, in 2012 a brief military coup led the democratic country into a state of political crisis. The recent presidential election was closely watched and, by most accounts, peaceful (IRI, 2013). Yet different obstacles remain to fulfilling the goal of consolidating the democratization process and attaining sustainable development carried out by local actors (IMF, 2013).
Local governance at a glance
- The country is divided into 8 Regions and the capital district Bamako. The regions and capital district are divided into 49 cercles (districts), which are further subdivided into 703 municipalities (TSEP, 2014).
- Each municipality has municipal councils whose counselors are elected for five year terms by citizens of the municipality. The counselors in turn elect a mayor (TSEP, 2014).
- The Ministry of Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Regional Planning (MATDAT) oversees the local sectors of governance.
- Mali has no legislated gender quota at the national or sub-national level (Quota Project, 2014).
Civil society actors include
- SOS Démocratie works to ensure fair elections with increased citizen turnout (SOS Démocratie, 2013).
- Groupe Pivot Droits et Citoyenneté des Femmes au Mali (GP/DCF) works to reach gender equality in families, end violence against women, and strengthen women’s citizenship and participation in power (GP/DCF, n.d.).
- Conseil National de la Société Civile (National Civil Society Council – NCSC) works to increase the impact of civil society by coordinating engagement with the government and private sector and strengthening civil society’s operating environment.
- The Forum of Civil Society Organizations (FOSC) provides a space for dialogue and participation to strengthen democracy and sustainable development (FOSC, 2011).
Capacity building institutions
- The Support Program for Local Authorities (PACT) works under MATDAT to strengthen the capacity of local governments and ensure that local authorities are effective in carrying out responsibilities (PACT, 2013).
- The Association of Municipalities of Mali (AMM) includes all municipalities and promotes the decentralization and deepening of local democracy (AMM, 2014).
- The budget of local governments is composed of “(i) local tax revenues collected with the help of the tax authorities; (ii) government budget transfers (solidarity subsidies to make up for regional disparities); and (iii) investment grants (…) through the National Local Government Investment Agency” (World Bank, 2010).
- Local authorities raise few of their own funds, and they rely on transfers from the federal government (World Bank, 2013).
- Transfers from the central government are set on an ad hoc basis (UCLG Africa and Cities Alliance, 2013).
- In 2000, The National Local Government Investment Agency (ANICT) was created. The ANICT works with rural municipalities to formulate budgets and manage local funds (World Bank, 2007).
- A National Budget Directorate oversees the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) and local program budgets. They promote greater budget transparency and strengthen ties between local authorities and the Ministry of Economy and Finance (World Bank, 2006).
Key initiatives for participatory local governance
- Modern decentralization in Mali began in 1992 and the government laid out the plan in two phases covering a dozen years (1992-2004). The first phase included designing a democratic reform and following through with the implementation. The second stage was introduced in The National Decentralization Policy Paper and included a plan to further enact and consolidate reforms during the years 2005-2014 (World Bank, 2010; IMF, 2013).
- While the 1992 Constitution provided the principles for decentralization, the 1993 law set the framework for decentralization. It established regions, cercles and municipalities and constituted elected councils (WRI and Landesa, 2011).
- The 1996 Principal Decentralization Law shifted responsibilities for protecting natural resources and managing lands to local government (WRI and Landesa, 2011).
- In 2002, the National Government signed decrees to transfer responsibilities concerning health, education and water to the local authorities (Kit, 2004).
- The 2005 National Decentralization Policy Framework Paper (2005-2014) focuses on “capacity building in territorial communities, improvement of devolution, development of citizenship and development of private service delivery at the local level” (PD, 2011).
Challenges for participatory local governance
- The Network for Advocacy for Peace, Security and Development in Northern Mali criticized former President Tourés’ 2010 Special Program for Peace, Security, and Development in Northern Mali (PSPSDN) for not including the participation of local governments and affected communities. The program increased police and military presence in northern Mali (USIP, 2013).
- Local government faces several challenges: transfer of competences to the local level has been accompanied by insufficient resources, weak resources-mobilization leads to dependency on transfers from central government, lack of budget decentralization, and insufficient representation of civil society (World Bank, 2013).
- Financial transfers from the central government are unpredictable and conditional, thus impeding local autonomy (UCLG Africa and Cities Alliance, 2013).
Recent posts on this website about this country:
- Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education : design of a randomised trial of home-grown school feeding in Mali (2013)
- Global uncertainties : security in an Africa of networked, multi-level governance (2012)
- Managing informality : local government practices and approaches towards the informal economy : learning examples from five African countries (2012)
- Development as a collective action problem : addressing the real challenges of African governance : synthesis report (2012)
- Women in search of citizenship : experiences from West Africa (2012)
- Devolution and human resources in primary healthcare in rural Mali (2011)
- Yes Africa can : success stories from a dynamic continent (2011)
- FAGLAF : Forum d’action pour la gouvernance locale en Afrique francophone (2011)
- Mali : food security and land governance factsheet (2011)
- Agrarian change below the radar screen : rising farmland acquisitions by domestic investors in west Africa : results from a survey in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger (2011)
List of sources:
Association of Municipalities of Mali (AMM), 2014: http://www.coopdec-mali.org.
Evaluation of the Paris Declaration (PD), 2011: “Country Evaluation Mali. Executive Summary.”
Forum of Civil Society Organizations (FOSC), 2011: http://www.societecivilemali.org.
Gender Quota, 2014: “Mali.”
Groupe Pivot Droits et Citoyenneté des Femmes au Mali (GP/DCF), n.d.: http://www.jeunesse.francophonie.org/annuaire/societe-civile/groupe-pivot-droits-et-citoyennete-des-femmes-au-mali.
International Republican Institute (IRI), 2013: “Election Watch Mali”
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013: “Mali: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.”
Kit Development, Policy and Practice, 2004: “Decentralisation in Mali: Putting Policy into Practice”
SNV and CDELO, 2004: “Decentralisation in Mali: Putting Policy into Practice.”
SOS Démocratie, 2013: http://sosdemocratiemali.org.
Support Program for Local Authorities (PACT): http://www.pact-mali.org.
Trans-Saharan Elections Project (TSEP), 2014, University of Florida: “The Electoral System. Mali.”
United Cities and Local Governments of Africa (UCLG Africa) and Cities Alliance, 2013: “Assessing the Institutional Environment of Local Governments in Africa.”
US Institute of Peace (USIP), 2013: “Crisis in Mali: Root Causes and Long-Term Solutions”
World Bank, 2006: “Mali.”
World Bank, 2007: “Development of the Cities of Mali – Challenges and Priorities.”
World Bank, 2010: “Mali Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review.”
World Bank, 2013: “Implementation Status & Results. Mali. ML- Governance and Budget Decentralization Technical Assistance Project (P112821).”
World Resources Institute (WRI) and Landesa, 2011: “The Challenge of Decentralization in Mali.”