Cote d’Ivoire

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cote-dIvoire-political-mapPopulation: 19,839,750

HDI ranking: 168/187

HDI score: 0.432

There has been a significant presence of political instability and violence over the last decade in Côte d’Ivoire, including a civil war in 2002 and an outbreak of violence after elections in 2010 and 2013. This uncertainty has led to inconsistent implementation of fiscal and administrative reforms (Freedom House, 2014; UCLG, 2008b).


Local governance at a glance

  • Côte d’Ivoire is divided into 31 provinces, 81 departments, and 197 communes (DGDDL, 2010).
  • Municipal councils are directly elected for five­ year terms. Local executives are indirectly appointed (UCLG, 2010).
  • Municipalities are responsible for social assistance (UCLG, 2010).
  • At the national level the General Directorate of Decentralization and Local Development (DGDDL), within the Ministry of State, Interior and Security, is responsible for local governments’ financial support, capacity building, and technical support as well as monitoring power devolution from the State (DGDDL, 2010).
  • Côte d’Ivoire does not have legislated gender quotas at the subnational level (Quota Project, 2013).

Civil society actors

Capacity building institutions

Fiscal control

  • The local government does not collect taxes, but can change rates and receives a share of tax revenue from the central government (UCLG, 2008a).
  • In 2007, the local governments’ expenditures are estimated to have been 11% of the total government expenditure (UCLG, 2010).
  • The Loan Fund for Local Authorities (Fonds de Pret aux Collectivites Locales ­FPCL) makes loans to local governments and is capitalized by the central government and the international community (UCLG, 2010).

Key initiatives for participatory local governance

  • In 2002 the country held its first election for departmental councils (UNPAN, 2007).
  • In 2010, violence and major political crisis occurred after President Gbagbo refused to step down after the election. By 2011, the country recovered enough to hold successful legislative elections (IMF, 2012).
  • From 2009 to 2013 the Government achieved the following (IMF, 2012):
    • A draft of local development plans with local participation
    • Trained female local leaders in leadership, and participatory planning
    • Disseminated the local participatory planning manual developed by the Ministry of State and the Ministry of Planning and Development.
  • There were local and regional elections in 2013, marking progress in the country’s gradual return to normal multiparty political activity (Freedom House, 2014).

Challenges for participatory local governance

  • The 2012 country plan jointly developed by the IMF and the Government of Côte d’Ivoire describes the following challenges (IMF, 2012):
    • Low overall citizen involvement in local community management
    • An absence of a consistent decentralization strategy with resources to finance its development and execution.
  • Transparency International’s corruption measurement ranked Côte d’Ivoire very low due to the high level of corruption in the country (Freedom House, 2014).

Recent posts on this website about this country:


List of sources:

Centre de Recherche et d’action pour la paix (CERAP), 2014:

Coalition de la Société Civile pour la Paix et le développement démocratique en Côte d’Ivoire (COSOPCI), 2010:

Direction Generale de la Decentralisation et du Developpement Local (DGDLL), 2010: “Missions et Attributions.”

Freedom House, 2014: “Côte d’Ivoire.”

International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2012: “Côte d’Ivoire: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report.”

Union des Villes et Communes de Côte d’Ivoire (UVICOCI), n.d.:

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), 2008a: “Decentralization and local democracy in the world.”

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), 2008b: “Republic of Côte d’Ivoire.”

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), 2010: “Local Government Finance: The Challenges of the 21st Century.”

United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN), 2007: “Côte d’Ivoire: Public Administration Country Profile.”

Quota Project, 2013: “Côte d’Ivoire.”

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