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HDI ranking: 178/187
HDI score: 0.355
Guinea has historically been a highly centralized country until decentralization was declared for the first time as a state vision in 1985. Decentralization has been pursued reluctantly, and the recent adoption of the Local Government Code and local elections constituted important steps to push local governments to the forefront for encouraging citizen’s engagement and improving service delivery (World Bank, 2008).
Local governance at a glance
- Guinea has several levels of government administration; in descending order, they are 8 regions, 33 prefectures, over 100 sub-prefectures, and many districts (known as communes, villages, or quartiers) (UNPAN, 2004).
- The local authorities are urban municipalities and rural development communities (CRDs). 38 Urban municipalities are subdivided into 330 neighborhoods, and in rural areas, the villages are organized into rural districts (UCLG, 2006).
- Local authorities are administered freely by elected councils within the conditions established by law, and the authority’s executive is elected by the local council from among its members (UCLG, 2006).
- Guinea has legislated gender quotas to assure one third (33%) of the seats for members of district councils are woman. Also, political parties which have elected women in the communal-municipal councils can get 5% distribution of the state funding for political parties (Quota Project, 2013).
Civil society actors include
- The Forum of NGOs for Sustainable Development (FONGDD) is a platform of dialogue gathering national and international NGOs in Guinea. Strategic intervention areas include decentralization and democracy.
Capacity building institutions
- The Association of Presidents of CRDs of Guinea (APCRD/G) and the Association of Mayors of Guinea are associations of local elected officials. They aim to establish a framework of cooperation and exchange to bring socio-economic development to the CRDs and the urban municipalities (UCLG, 2006).
- Ministry of Territorial Administration and Decentralization strengthened the institutional capacities of newly elected officials through providing training/awareness-raising in 2006 (UCLG, 2006).
- National Council of Guinean Civil Society Organizations (CNOSCG) provides information and training for citizen in local languages and strengthens member’s capacities for strategic planning and advocacy (ECDPM, 2003).
- Local authorities’ resources are own resources, shared revenues, and grants from the state. Provisions have two types: operating provision which is annually transferred to all the local authorities and an outfitting provision which appears as a form of subsidy for specific authorities (UCLG, 2006).
- The Local Government Code of 2006 called for autonomy in creating and collecting taxes and setting tax rates for local governments (World Bank, 2008).
Key initiatives for participatory local governance
- For the change of regime in 1984, the new authorities stated their desire to have a multi-party democracy and wider citizen participation in decision-making process (UCLG, 2006).
- In 1986, local authorities were created and decentralization process effectively began (UCLG, 2006).
- In 2005, elections for rural communities and urban municipalities were organized for the first time (UCLG, 2006).
- The government has committed to decentralization through the adaptation in the 2006 of the Local Government Code which is one of the most comprehensive legal decentralization frameworks in Western Africa (World Bank, 2008).
Challenges for participatory local governance
- There is a certain resistance to decentralization on the level of central State structures because of the fear of a loss of privileges and a lack of confidence in the capability of non-central structures for public service delivery (UCLG, 2006).
- Local governments have a lack of local political, administrative, and technical staff (UCLG, 2006).
- Fiscal devolution is marginal and revenue levels at local governments are insufficient. Moreover, revenue varies significantly among local governments, raising concerns of severe horizontal fiscal imbalance (World Bank, 2008).
Recent posts on this website about this country:
- FAGLAF : Forum d’action pour la gouvernance locale en Afrique francophone (2011)
- Schooling and decentralization : patterns and policy implications in francophone west Africa (2010)
- Local government discretion and accountability : application of a local governance framework (2009)
- Decentralisation and poverty reduction : elaborating the linkages (2000)
List of sources (in order of citation):
UCLG, 2006: “Republic of Guinea”
United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN), 2004: “Republic of Guinea: Public Administration Country Profile”
Quota Project, 2013: “Guinea”
European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM), 2003: “Non-state actors in Guinea”
World Bank, 2008: “Decentralization in Guinea”